2. Getting Started

This tutorial is a step-by-step introduction to installing Icinga 2 and Icinga Web 2. It assumes that you are familiar with the operating system you're using to install Icinga 2.

2.1. Setting up Icinga 2

First off you will have to install Icinga 2. The preferred way of doing this is to use the official package repositories depending on which operating system and distribution you are running.

Distribution Repository
Debian debmon, Icinga Repository
Ubuntu Icinga PPA, Icinga Repository
RHEL/CentOS Icinga Repository
openSUSE Icinga Repository, Server Monitoring Repository
SLES Icinga Repository
Gentoo Upstream
FreeBSD Upstream
ArchLinux Upstream

Packages for distributions other than the ones listed above may also be available. Please contact your distribution packagers.

2.1.1. Package Repositories

You need to add the Icinga repository to your package management configuration. Below is a list with examples for the various distributions.

Debian (debmon):

# wget -O - https://debmon.org/debmon/repo.key 2>/dev/null | apt-key add -
# echo 'deb http://debmon.org/debmon debmon-jessie main' >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/debmon.list
# apt-get update

Ubuntu (PPA):

# add-apt-repository ppa:formorer/icinga
# apt-get update

RHEL/CentOS 7:

yum install https://packages.icinga.org/epel/7/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-7-1.el7.centos.noarch.rpm

RHEL/CentOS 6:

yum install https://packages.icinga.org/epel/6/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-6-1.el6.noarch.rpm

RHEL/CentOS 5:

rpm -i http://packages.icinga.org/epel/5/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-5-1.el5.centos.noarch.rpm

Fedora 23:

dnf install https://packages.icinga.org/fedora/23/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-23-1.fc23.noarch.rpm

Fedora 22:

dnf install https://packages.icinga.org/fedora/22/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-22-1.fc22.noarch.rpm

Fedora 21:

yum install http://packages.icinga.org/fedora/21/release/noarch/icinga-rpm-release-21-1.fc21.noarch.rpm

SLES 11:

# zypper ar http://packages.icinga.org/SUSE/ICINGA-release-11.repo
# zypper ref

SLES 12:

# zypper ar http://packages.icinga.org/SUSE/ICINGA-release.repo
# zypper ref

openSUSE:

# zypper ar http://packages.icinga.org/openSUSE/ICINGA-release.repo
# zypper ref

2.1.1.1. RHEL/CentOS EPEL Repository

The packages for RHEL/CentOS depend on other packages which are distributed as part of the EPEL repository.

CentOS 7/6/5:

yum install epel-release

If you are using RHEL you need enable the optional repository and then install the EPEL rpm package.

2.1.1.2. SLES Security Repository

The packages for SLES 11 depend on the openssl1 package which is distributed as part of the SLES 11 Security Module.

2.1.2. Installing Icinga 2

You can install Icinga 2 by using your distribution's package manager to install the icinga2 package.

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install icinga2

RHEL/CentOS 5/6:

# yum install icinga2
# chkconfig icinga2 on
# service icinga2 start

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# yum install icinga2
# systemctl enable icinga2
# systemctl start icinga2

SLES/openSUSE:

# zypper install icinga2

FreeBSD:

# pkg install icinga2

2.1.3. Enabled Features during Installation

The default installation will enable three features required for a basic Icinga 2 installation:

  • checker for executing checks
  • notification for sending notifications
  • mainlog for writing the icinga2.log file

You can verify that by calling icinga2 feature list CLI command to see which features are enabled and disabled.

# icinga2 feature list
Disabled features: api command compatlog debuglog graphite icingastatus ido-mysql ido-pgsql livestatus notification perfdata statusdata syslog
Enabled features: checker mainlog notification

2.1.4. Installation Paths

By default Icinga 2 uses the following files and directories:

Path Description
/etc/icinga2 Contains Icinga 2 configuration files.
/etc/init.d/icinga2 The Icinga 2 init script.
/usr/sbin/icinga2 The Icinga 2 binary.
/usr/share/doc/icinga2 Documentation files that come with Icinga 2.
/usr/share/icinga2/include The Icinga Template Library and plugin command configuration.
/var/run/icinga2 PID file.
/var/run/icinga2/cmd Command pipe and Livestatus socket.
/var/cache/icinga2 status.dat/objects.cache, icinga2.debug files
/var/spool/icinga2 Used for performance data spool files.
/var/lib/icinga2 Icinga 2 state file, cluster log, local CA and configuration files.
/var/log/icinga2 Log file location and compat/ directory for the CompatLogger feature.

FreeBSD uses slightly different paths:

By default Icinga 2 uses the following files and directories:

Path Description
/usr/local/etc/icinga2 Contains Icinga 2 configuration files.
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/icinga2 The Icinga 2 init script.
/usr/local/sbin/icinga2 The Icinga 2 binary.
/usr/local/share/doc/icinga2 Documentation files that come with Icinga 2.
/usr/local/share/icinga2/include The Icinga Template Library and plugin command configuration.
/var/run/icinga2 PID file.
/var/run/icinga2/cmd Command pipe and Livestatus socket.
/var/cache/icinga2 status.dat/objects.cache, icinga2.debug files
/var/spool/icinga2 Used for performance data spool files.
/var/lib/icinga2 Icinga 2 state file, cluster log, local CA and configuration files.
/var/log/icinga2 Log file location and compat/ directory for the CompatLogger feature.

2.2. Setting up Check Plugins

Without plugins Icinga 2 does not know how to check external services. The Monitoring Plugins Project provides an extensive set of plugins which can be used with Icinga 2 to check whether services are working properly.

These plugins are required to make the example configuration work out-of-the-box.

For your convenience here is a list of package names for some of the more popular operating systems/distributions:

OS/Distribution Package Name Repository Installation Path
RHEL/CentOS nagios-plugins-all EPEL  /usr/lib/nagios/plugins or /usr/lib64/nagios/plugins
SLES/OpenSUSE monitoring-plugins server:monitoring /usr/lib/nagios/plugins
Debian/Ubuntu nagios-plugins -  /usr/lib/nagios/plugins
FreeBSD monitoring-plugins -  /usr/local/libexec/nagios
OS X nagios-plugins MacPorts, Homebrew /opt/local/libexec or /usr/local/sbin

The recommended way of installing these standard plugins is to use your distribution's package manager.

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install nagios-plugins

RHEL/CentOS:

# yum install nagios-plugins-all

The packages for RHEL/CentOS depend on other packages which are distributed as part of the EPEL repository. Please make sure to enable this repository by following these instructions.

Fedora:

# dnf install nagios-plugins-all

SLES/openSUSE:

# zypper install monitoring-plugins

The packages for SLES/OpenSUSE depend on other packages which are distributed as part of the server:monitoring repository. Please make sure to enable this repository beforehand.

FreeBSD:

# pkg install monitoring-plugins

Depending on which directory your plugins are installed into you may need to update the global PluginDir constant in your Icinga 2 configuration. This constant is used by the check command definitions contained in the Icinga Template Library to determine where to find the plugin binaries.

Note

Please refer to the service monitoring chapter for details about how to integrate additional check plugins into your Icinga 2 setup.

2.3. Running Icinga 2

2.3.1. Init Script

Icinga 2's init script is installed in /etc/init.d/icinga2 (/usr/local/etc/rc.d/icinga2 on FreeBSD) by default:

# /etc/init.d/icinga2
Usage: /etc/init.d/icinga2 {start|stop|restart|reload|checkconfig|status}

The init script supports the following actions:

Command Description
start The start action starts the Icinga 2 daemon.
stop The stop action stops the Icinga 2 daemon.
restart The restart action is a shortcut for running the stop action followed by start.
reload The reload action sends the HUP signal to Icinga 2 which causes it to restart. Unlike the restart action reload does not wait until Icinga 2 has restarted.
checkconfig The checkconfig action checks if the /etc/icinga2/icinga2.conf configuration file contains any errors.
status The status action checks if Icinga 2 is running.

By default the Icinga 2 daemon is running as icinga user and group using the init script. Using Debian packages the user and group are set to nagios for historical reasons.

2.3.2. systemd Service

Some distributions (e.g. Fedora, openSUSE and RHEL/CentOS 7) use systemd. The Icinga 2 packages automatically install the necessary systemd unit files.

The Icinga 2 systemd service can be (re-)started, reloaded, stopped and also queried for its current status.

# systemctl status icinga2
icinga2.service - Icinga host/service/network monitoring system
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/icinga2.service; disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mi 2014-07-23 13:39:38 CEST; 15s ago
  Process: 21692 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/icinga2 -c ${ICINGA2_CONFIG_FILE} -d -e ${ICINGA2_ERROR_LOG} -u ${ICINGA2_USER} -g ${ICINGA2_GROUP} (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 21674 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/icinga2-prepare-dirs /etc/sysconfig/icinga2 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 21727 (icinga2)
   CGroup: /system.slice/icinga2.service
           21727 /usr/sbin/icinga2 -c /etc/icinga2/icinga2.conf -d -e /var/log/icinga2/error.log -u icinga -g icinga --no-stack-rlimit

Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 309 Service(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 1 User(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 15 Notification(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 4 ScheduledDowntime(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 1 UserGroup(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 1 IcingaApplication(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif icinga2[21692]: [2014-07-23 13:39:38 +0200] information/ConfigItem: Checked 8 Dependency(s).
Jul 23 13:39:38 nbmif systemd[1]: Started Icinga host/service/network monitoring system.

The systemctl command supports the following actions:

Command Description
start The start action starts the Icinga 2 daemon.
stop The stop action stops the Icinga 2 daemon.
restart The restart action is a shortcut for running the stop action followed by start.
reload The reload action sends the HUP signal to Icinga 2 which causes it to restart. Unlike the restart action reload does not wait until Icinga 2 has restarted.
status The status action checks if Icinga 2 is running.
enable The enable action enables the service being started at system boot time (similar to chkconfig)

Examples:

# systemctl enable icinga2

# systemctl restart icinga2
Job for icinga2.service failed. See 'systemctl status icinga2.service' and 'journalctl -xn' for details.

If you're stuck with configuration errors, you can manually invoke the configuration validation.

2.3.3. FreeBSD

On FreeBSD you need to enable icinga2 in your rc.conf

# sysrc icinga2_enable=yes

# service icinga2 restart

2.4. Configuration Syntax Highlighting

Icinga 2 ships configuration examples for syntax highlighting using the vim and nano editors. The RHEL and SUSE package icinga2-common installs these files into /usr/share/doc/icinga2-common-[x.x.x]/syntax (where [x.x.x] is the version number, e.g. 2.4.3 or 2.4.4). Sources provide these files in tools/syntax. On Debian systems the icinga2-common package provides only the Nano configuration file (/usr/share/nano/icinga2.nanorc); to obtain the Vim configuration, please install the extra package vim-icinga2. The files are located in /usr/share/vim/addons.

2.4.1. Configuration Syntax Highlighting using Vim

Install the package vim-icinga2 with your distribution's package manager.

Debian/Ubuntu:

$ apt-get install vim-icinga2 vim-addon-manager
$ vim-addon-manager -w install icinga2
Info: installing removed addon 'icinga2' to /var/lib/vim/addons

RHEL/CentOS/Fedora:

$ yum install vim-icinga2

SLES/openSUSE:

$ zypper install vim-icinga2

Ensure that syntax highlighting is enabled e.g. by editing the user's vimrc configuration file:

$ vim ~/.vimrc
syntax on

Test it:

$ vim /etc/icinga2/conf.d/templates.conf

Vim with syntax highlighting

2.4.2. Configuration Syntax Highlighting using Nano

Install the package nano-icinga2 with your distribution's package manager.

Debian/Ubuntu:

Note: The syntax files are installed with the icinga2-common package already.

RHEL/CentOS/Fedora:

$ yum install nano-icinga2

SLES/openSUSE:

$ zypper install nano-icinga2

Copy the /etc/nanorc sample file to your home directory.

$ cp /etc/nanorc ~/.nanorc

Include the icinga2.nanorc file.

$ vim ~/.nanorc

## Icinga 2
include "/usr/share/nano/icinga2.nanorc"

Test it:

$ nano /etc/icinga2/conf.d/templates.conf

Nano with syntax highlighting

2.5. Setting up Icinga Web 2

Icinga 2 can be used with Icinga Web 2 and a number of other web interfaces. This chapter explains how to set up Icinga Web 2.

The DB IDO (Database Icinga Data Output) modules for Icinga 2 take care of exporting all configuration and status information into a database. The IDO database is used by a number of projects including Icinga Web 2, Icinga Reporting or Icinga Web 1.x.

There is a separate module for each database backend. At present support for both MySQL and PostgreSQL is implemented.

2.5.1. Configuring DB IDO MySQL

2.5.1.1. Installing MySQL database server

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client

RHEL/CentOS 5/6:

# yum install mysql-server mysql
# chkconfig mysqld on
# service mysqld start
# mysql_secure_installation

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# yum install mariadb-server mariadb
# systemctl enable mariadb
# systemctl start mariadb
# mysql_secure_installation

SUSE:

# zypper install mysql mysql-client
# chkconfig mysqld on
# service mysqld start

FreeBSD:

# pkg install mysql56-server
# sysrc mysql_enable=yes
# service mysql-server restart
# mysql_secure_installation

2.5.1.2. Installing the IDO modules for MySQL

The next step is to install the icinga2-ido-mysql package using your distribution's package manager.

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install icinga2-ido-mysql

RHEL/CentOS:

# yum install icinga2-ido-mysql

SUSE:

# zypper install icinga2-ido-mysql

FreeBSD:

On FreeBSD the IDO modules for MySQL are included with the icinga2 package and located at /usr/local/share/icinga2-ido-mysql/schema/mysql.sql

Note

The Debian/Ubuntu packages provide a database configuration wizard by default. You can skip the automated setup and install/upgrade the database manually if you prefer that.

2.5.1.3. Setting up the MySQL database

Set up a MySQL database for Icinga 2:

# mysql -u root -p

mysql>  CREATE DATABASE icinga;
mysql>  GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, DROP, CREATE VIEW, INDEX, EXECUTE ON icinga.* TO 'icinga'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'icinga';
mysql> quit

setting up the database on CentOS 7

After creating the database you can import the Icinga 2 IDO schema using the following command:

# mysql -u root -p icinga < /usr/share/icinga2-ido-mysql/schema/mysql.sql

2.5.1.4. Enabling the IDO MySQL module

The package provides a new configuration file that is installed in /etc/icinga2/features-available/ido-mysql.conf. You will need to update the database credentials in this file.

All available attributes are explained in the IdoMysqlConnection object chapter.

You can enable the ido-mysql feature configuration file using icinga2 feature enable:

# icinga2 feature enable ido-mysql
Module 'ido-mysql' was enabled.
Make sure to restart Icinga 2 for these changes to take effect.

After enabling the ido-mysql feature you have to restart Icinga 2:

Debian/Ubuntu, RHEL/CentOS 6 and SUSE:

# service icinga2 restart

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# systemctl restart icinga2

FreeBSD:

# service icinga2 restart

2.5.2. Configuring DB IDO PostgreSQL

2.5.2.1. Installing PostgreSQL database server

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install postgresql

RHEL/CentOS 5/6:

# yum install postgresql-server postgresql
# chkconfig postgresql on
# service postgresql start

RHEL/CentOS 7:

# yum install postgresql-server postgresql
# postgresql-setup initdb
# systemctl enable postgresql
# systemctl start postgresql

SUSE:

# zypper install postgresql postgresql-server
# chkconfig postgresql on
# service postgresql start

FreeBSD:

# pkg install postgresql93-server
# sysrc postgresql_enable=yes
# service postgresql start

2.5.2.2. Installing the IDO modules for PostgreSQL

The next step is to install the icinga2-ido-pgsql package using your distribution's package manager.

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install icinga2-ido-pgsql

RHEL/CentOS:

# yum install icinga2-ido-pgsql

SUSE:

# zypper install icinga2-ido-pgsql

FreeBSD:

On FreeBSD the IDO modules for PostgreSQL are included with the icinga2 package and located at /usr/local/share/icinga2-ido-pgsql/schema/pgsql.sql

Note

Upstream Debian packages provide a database configuration wizard by default. You can skip the automated setup and install/upgrade the database manually if you prefer that.

2.5.2.3. Setting up the PostgreSQL database

Set up a PostgreSQL database for Icinga 2:

# cd /tmp
# sudo -u postgres psql -c "CREATE ROLE icinga WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'icinga'"
# sudo -u postgres createdb -O icinga -E UTF8 icinga
# sudo -u postgres createlang plpgsql icinga

Note

When using PostgreSQL 9.x you can omit the createlang command. Also it is assumed here that your locale is set to utf-8, you may run into problems otherwise.

Locate your pg_hba.conf (Debian: /etc/postgresql/*/main/pg_hba.conf, RHEL/SUSE: /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf), add the icinga user with md5 authentication method and restart the postgresql server.

# icinga
local   icinga      icinga                            md5
host    icinga      icinga      127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    icinga      icinga      ::1/128               md5

# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only
local   all         all                               ident
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all         all         127.0.0.1/32          ident
# IPv6 local connections:
host    all         all         ::1/128               ident

# service postgresql restart

After creating the database and permissions you can import the Icinga 2 IDO schema using the following command:

# export PGPASSWORD=icinga
# psql -U icinga -d icinga < /usr/share/icinga2-ido-pgsql/schema/pgsql.sql

importing the Icinga 2 IDO schema

2.5.2.4. Enabling the IDO PostgreSQL module

The package provides a new configuration file that is installed in /etc/icinga2/features-available/ido-pgsql.conf. You will need to update the database credentials in this file.

All available attributes are explained in the IdoPgsqlConnection object chapter.

You can enable the ido-pgsql feature configuration file using icinga2 feature enable:

# icinga2 feature enable ido-pgsql
Module 'ido-pgsql' was enabled.
Make sure to restart Icinga 2 for these changes to take effect.

After enabling the ido-pgsql feature you have to restart Icinga 2:

Debian/Ubuntu, RHEL/CentOS 6, SUSE and FreeBSD:

# service icinga2 restart

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# systemctl restart icinga2

2.5.3. Webserver

Debian/Ubuntu:

# apt-get install apache2

RHEL/CentOS 6:

# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on
# service httpd start

RHEL/CentOS 7/Fedora:

# yum install httpd
# systemctl enable httpd
# systemctl start httpd

SUSE:

# zypper install apache2
# chkconfig on
# service apache2 start

FreeBSD (nginx, but you could also use the apache24 package):

# pkg install nginx php56-gettext php56-ldap php56-openssl php56-mysql php56-pdo_mysql php56-pgsql php56-pdo_pgsql php56-sockets php56-gd pecl-imagick pecl-intl
# sysrc php_fpm_enable=yes
# sysrc nginx_enable=yes
# sed -i '' "s/listen\ =\ 127.0.0.1:9000/listen\ =\ \/var\/run\/php5-fpm.sock/" /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
# sed -i '' "s/;listen.owner/listen.owner/" /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
# sed -i '' "s/;listen.group/listen.group/" /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
# sed -i '' "s/;listen.mode/listen.mode/" /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
# service php-fpm start
# service nginx start

2.5.4. Firewall Rules

Example:

# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
# service iptables save

RHEL/CentOS 7 specific:

# firewall-cmd --add-service=http
# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

FreeBSD: Please consult the FreeBSD Handbook how to configure one of FreeBSD's firewalls.

2.5.5. Setting Up External Command Pipe

Web interfaces and other Icinga addons are able to send commands to Icinga 2 through the external command pipe.

You can enable the External Command Pipe using the CLI:

# icinga2 feature enable command

After that you will have to restart Icinga 2:

Debian/Ubuntu, RHEL/CentOS 6 and SUSE:

# service icinga2 restart

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# systemctl restart icinga2

FreeBSD:

# service icinga2 restart

By default the command pipe file is owned by the group icingacmd with read/write permissions. Add your webserver's user to the group icingacmd to enable sending commands to Icinga 2 through your web interface:

# usermod -a -G icingacmd www-data

FreeBSD: On FreeBSD the rw directory is owned by the group www. You do not need to add the user icinga to the group www.

Debian packages use nagios as the default user and group name. Therefore change icingacmd to nagios.

The webserver's user is different between distributions so you might have to change www-data to wwwrun, www, or apache.

Change www-data to the user you're using to run queries.

You can verify that the user has been successfully added to the icingacmd group using the id command:

$ id <your-webserver-user>

id command on CentOS 7

2.5.6. Installing Icinga Web 2

Please consult the installation documentation for further instructions on how to install Icinga Web 2.

2.6. Addons

A number of additional features are available in the form of addons. A list of popular addons is available in the Addons and Plugins chapter.

2.7. Backup

Ensure to include the following in your backups:

  • Configuration files in /etc/icinga2
  • Runtime files in /var/lib/icinga2 (the master's CA is stored here as well)
  • Optional: IDO database backup